Introductory Video Lesson: Image Imprinting

The fast pace and quick transitions in this video purposely give you little time to process the meaning of some of the images. The deliberate use of this technique is related to a clinical psychological term called imprinting. I don't want you to think, I want you to 'see'. Do not pause the video the first time you watch it. Proceeding this way is exactly how a musician, skilled baseball hitter, NFL quarter back, or an infant develops pattern recognition, processing speed, and cognitive reasoning. Good coaches and teachers know the value and conditioning effects of 'practicing fast' in order to 'see' or perform fast and know when to slow things down. To move your muscles 'fast' and explosively you must play, practice, and train fast. Your brain works the same way. Don't think, just watch the video. Thinking, slowing down, and discussion come later. Prepare your questions for the next lecture.

Link to Video Lesson 1



Forward: Hardly anyone thinks of nutrition as an event in concrete terms. However, people unconsciously speak of metabolism as an event that has a concrete outcome such as weight gain, weight loss, or recovery from training or illness. Such 'metabolic outcomes' occur because nutrition is an active event.

The way to 'see' or visualize nutrition as an active event is to view images that freeze time and capture a moment of the micro and macro world. For example, the two physical phenomena shown below occur simultaneously; one occurs unseen at the microscopic level and the other macroscopically, as seen by the naked eye. More specifically, movement of your whole body (sprinting) and an unseen metabolic event in your muscle cells (fermentation) occur simultaneously. You would never know this unless you were shown the connection.



As trainers, healers, and scientists, we do not need to literally see biochemical-nutritional events happening inside a muscle. We just need a model to visualize 'nutrients used' within a muscle or any cell within the body. Consider how, at a glance you understand 'hot colors' express hot temperatures on a weather map, even though you do not see 'faster molecular vibration' of air molecules. Likewise, you just need to learn how color analogizes nutritional demand with speed of moving the body.



This book uses a variety schematics and visual devices to connect events of the unseen world with their external familiarly known forms, which people experience daily. By connecting these perspectives, a trained eye learns to 'see' metabolic activity within a cell more than just transforming food stuffs into physical action. A trained trainer or wise healer sees transformation of energy as synonymous with restoring the integral function of specific physical body parts as we recover from training or heal and regenerate the whole body over time.

In the first lesson, color codes train you to see 'metabolism of nutrients' in a muscle cell, akin to learning the meaning of colors and symbols of a map legend.  Let us start from the beginning.


Navigate These Lessons:

Lesson 1: Muscles, Bacteria, and Acid

Lesson 2: The Magus of Metabolism

Lesson 3: Expand Your Limits

Lesson 4: Muscles, Lightning, Brain Cells, and Water

Lesson 5: Fermentation and the Origins of Energy Balance Experiments

Lesson 6: Linear Perception vs. Perceiving ‘Simultaneity’

Lesson 7: Messages from Masters of Nature, Science, and Economics

Source and/or Suggested Readings

Parting Thoughts 

Lesson 1: Muscles, Bacteria, and Acid

Food is used within two sections of your muscles. One section is represented by lighted votive candles and the other by yellow food colored water outside of the candles. For now on I refer to all circular images as muscle cells.



Varying the shade of yellow coloring outside the candles indicates the amount of carbohydrate a muscle uses. Darker shades of yellow indicate a muscle uses progressively more carbohydrate as exercise intensity increases. Therefore the muscle cell on the right is using more carbohydrate and working at a higher exercise intensity compared to the muscle cell on the left. The next section shows a real life example.



Compare world class sprinters running a 100m dash to a girl riding slowly on a bike. Obviously the girl’s legs work at a much lower intensity compared to the sprinters. We should, and indeed do see a lighter shade of yellow (outside the candles) in the girl’s muscle cell. Therefore this color code tells us she is using less carbohydrate to produce power.



Physical movement, including healing and regeneration of your body is powered by cells ‘working’ and consuming food. Cells consume food as they work even when movement is not involved. Before you were born, all your cells ‘worked’ to create you, beginning with the division of two cells. The food your mother ate fed your cells; now you must eat to generate movement and to regenerate your cells and whole body.



Exercise physiology examines how the body uses food while resting, not just during exercise. Cells continue working while ‘we appear to be resting’, so we must consider resting as part of the ‘whole working picture’ just as we consider a car engine at idle or a woman sitting in a tree both consume fuel. The whole picture spans the entire ‘energetic spectrum’ of human movement, from rest to maximum intensity levels.



Similarly to an idling engine, a developing fetus or meditating woman’s cells never stop consuming food and producing waste; acid is just one waste product produced 24/7. Notice in the muscle cell below I wrote “carbs convert to acid in cytosol”. Cytosol is the proper name of the outer section. The cytosol of your muscle cells can use only carbohydrate as fuel. Fat can’t burn in this section of your muscles.



Acid production increases slowly as exercise intensity or speed increases from resting, but then skyrockets exponentially at a certain point. The graph below shows lactic acid increasing as exercise intensity increases.



Similarly to muscles, bacteria living in your intestines convert carbohydrate to acid. Keep in mind, muscle metabolism produces only one type of acid - lactic acid.* Conversely, gut flora produce a variety of other acids, including lactic acid and a small amount of alcohol and nail polish remover (acetone). The image below shows a variety of acids produced within the guts of cows and humans. Comparing cows and humans reveals much about energy intake, weight gain, antibiotics, immunity, and more (examined later).



As muscles and bacteria consume carbohydrate at a higher rate, acid is simultaneously produced at a faster rate. Thus, darker shading in each illustration indicates two things. 1: quantity of carbohydrate converted. 2: quantity of acid produced.



You can sprint without breathing. Absolutely no oxygen is needed to produce high powered movement. More precisely, movement powered without oxygen = anaerobic work. Fermenting carbohydrate at a very high rate is the only way to produce very high power.**  This explains why lactic acid production skyrockets during high intensity exercise and why high powered movements are unsustainable. Extreme acid production tends to shut a cell down. Aerobic metabolism (movement powered by using oxygen) cannot produce high powered movements.



Naturally, it’s stupid to sprint without breathing, but the point is you can. Holding your breath does not prevent you from rising out of your chair and sprinting for 20 yards or performing a 6-rep set of deadlifts. I am NOT saying other parts of your body no longer use oxygen during high powered exertions. I am saying the cytosol of the specific muscles producing anaerobic power during sprinting or lifting heavy weight do not use oxygen, by principle. This ‘power principle’ explains why white meat is white compared to dark meat in animals like chickens. The ‘white’ muscles are the fast twitch muscles geared for the most explosive movements, when no oxygen is necessary to move. For example, a chicken uses its white breast muscles very intensely and briefly during ‘fight or flight’. This intense power output requires fermenting carbohydrate.

Dark meat is ‘reddish’ because it contains more myoglobin. Myoglobin is a red, oxygen-binding pigment within slow twitch muscles that gears these muscles for uptaking lots of oxygen and endurance activity. Chicken breasts obviously lack this protein, whereas chicken legs contain plenty. Therefore a chicken’s leg muscles use more oxygen compared to their breast muscles and ‘endure’ working for long periods of time (allowing for hen pecking), but cannot contract as explosively. In short, using oxygen allows muscles to work longer, but not explosively.

Using oxygen to produce movement = aerobic metabolism = oxidative metabolism.

Not using oxygen to produce movement = anaerobic metabolism = fermenting carbs into lactic acid.

Using oxygen to produce energy results in slower, less explosive movement compared to fermenting carbohydrates. Moving without utilizing oxygen is the exclusive domain of very high intensity exercise, e.g. weight lifting and running 1500 meter races or shorter distances at competitive speeds. High powered, anaerobic events deplete greater amounts of carbohydrate compared to all slower and less intense movements. This explains why ‘high carb’ diets are inappropriate for people who exercise less or exercise at lower intensities. See graphs in Lesson 25.



Anaerobic ‘work’ applies to ALL cells of the body, not just muscles. It just so happens we ‘see’ muscles work because they are specialized cells which contract or physically shorten as they transform food into movement. Comparatively, other cells - e.g. brain, kidney, ovary cells - do not contract as they ‘perform work’. It is important to know, either anaerobic or aerobic metabolism implies the production of power, energy, or work within all cells, but ‘power and work’ in most cells do not create movement.

Muscle cells are one of a kind; they are a gateway for understanding how all cells work for two reasons:

One: All cells operate similarly. They feed aerobically or anaerobically. Two: Muscles cells are the only cells we can relate to in a concrete sense because we see and feel what they do. We command muscle cells at will. People of all ages relate to physical control and palpably sensed experiences, thus making muscle cells the ideal model for teaching nutrition, biochemistry, and more.

It is practical to imagine the cytosol of a muscle cell as essentially identical to anaerobic bacteria or just consider it the ‘bacterial section’ as indicated by a student’s hand drawing below. Now consider the fact your intestinal tract is oxygen deprived. This mean anaerobes living within your gut have no choice but to break food down in a way that does not involve oxygen, if they are going to survive. Because feeding anaerobically is ‘their only choice’ they possess machinery designed to ‘eat’ only carbohydrate. Likewise, cytosol of your muscles cells ‘possess machinery’ to feed only anaerobically.



In short, gut bacteria and cytosol are anaerobic digesters. Both convert carbohydrates to acid using the same chemical reaction, namely fermentation. Humans control the fermentation rate in muscles by voluntarily working harder and/or faster. In other words, we make our muscles ‘eat carbohydrates’ either slowly or quickly! The fermentation intensity within the gut is determined by the population density and sheer numbers of bacteria and not by their individual ‘speed of eating’.

Up to this point, we have ignored and will continue to ignore the section of a muscle cell that uses food and oxygen, represented by candles. Deliberately focusing only on the cytosol and acid production forced you to unconsciously disregard other ‘nutritional options’ available to a muscle cell. You were ‘forced’ to see: movement powered without oxygen occurs solely from the conversion of carbohydrates into lactic acid.***


Lesson 2: The Magus of Metabolism: Frances G. Benedict

Part I: ‘Forcing’ or Magician’s Choice

By choosing to focus on the cytosol, I ‘forced’ you to examine only one way muscle converts food into power, namely anaerobically. I purposely ignored the candles, which represent the section in muscles for producing aerobic power. Except for comparing white meat and dark meat, all talk focused on the ‘anatomical space’ where fermentation occurs. Either way you visualize rate of fermenting carbs and exercise intensity below, lactic acid production increases sharply within muscles only when we ‘shift’ into very high exercise intensities.



You have undoubtedly experienced the buildup of lactic acid when working hard and/or fast, which forced you to slow down and ‘catch your breath’. Let’s assume you already know oxygen exists, aerobic metabolism requires oxygen, and fat is a caloric fuel source. Knowing muscles produce the most intense bursts without oxygen/breathing, you are forced to conclude slower, less powerful, sustainable movements must involve a ‘nutritional reaction’ involving oxygen and fat. Since only carbohydrate can be used within the cytosol, this means the ‘oxygen-based nutritional reaction’ must happen elsewhere within the muscle cell. The candles must represent the anatomical space where aerobic metabolism occurs and the only place fat burns. There are no other choices to consider; you have been forced to these conclusions.

The words ‘anatomical space’ refers to an actual body part, similar to your nose or ear. Only two anatomical spaces exist for producing movement and metabolizing food, the cytosol and the ‘other space’. The other space is called the mitochondria.

To a professional stage magician, forcing is a technical term that means “the magician verbally forces the item which he wanted the spectator to choose.” This technique is also known as ‘magician’s choice’ – implying this writer could have chosen to examine both sections of the muscle responsible for producing power and movement, but I chose only one, namely the cytosol. Google ‘forcing magic trick’ or click Equivocation (magic).


Read more on Benedict, The Magus of Metabolism:



The graphic below illustrates the two choices or ‘Two Ways to Produce Energy’ within cells. The blue text in the left column lists all aspects of ‘nutrition as an event’ during anaerobic exercise. I deliberately ignored events related to aerobic metabolism listed in the right column, and will continue to do so until we examine oxidative/aerobic metabolism. It may now appear obvious that most everything on the right could be deduced after learning the phenomena listed in the left column. Notice, ‘CARBS ONLY’ at the bottom of the left column indicates it is the only fuel used to produce anaerobic power. The ability to measure CARBS USED as energy enables us to calculate and eat a properly ‘balanced amount’ of carbohydrate.



The only way to correctly ‘balance’ carbohydrate intake is relative to the quantity your body uses.
The Carbohydrate Continuum quantifies carbohydrate requirements relative to exercise intensity, resting included. The gigantic wheel is an analog computer that calculates or shows how to match carb intake with respect to overall activity, goals, and training regimens. Rotating wheels such as this are technically called volvelles.



Consider this quote from Francis G. Benedict, from the preface of the 1906 book by Atwater & Benedict:

“The study of the transformations of matter is rendered more complete and intelligible by a knowledge of transformation of energy.”

It should be obvious that any nutrition program that does not match nutrient demand to the whole energetic picture is, by design, limited, stunted, or partial. Telling people to ‘eat a balanced variety of foods’ may not prevent disease or promote health because such recommendations do not account for how the body selectively uses nutrients - unless like a stopped clock, which tells correct time twice a day, a ‘lucky match’ occurs. The construction of the food pyramid and the Unified Guidelines of Nutrition resembles a stopped clock. Vague language and failure to quantify nutritional requirements specifically to the body’s physical demand exposes the problem of using a one size fits all approach to educate the public. (See “Creators of Guidelines of Nutrition” in the appendix of The Physical Rules.)

Politicians, policy makers, and lackey scientists consider a splatter ‘buckshot’ approach applicable for the masses, but this fails to satisfy an individual who desires to eat according to function, training goals, or specific healing modalities. The ‘limited nutritionist’ is satisfied with covering the bases and running a narrow path around the infield diamond, but the wholistic thinker, trainer, or healer covers the whole field. He or she thinks in terms of systems and functional relationships.



Summarily, eating nutrient dense foods according to guidelines increases the probability people may ‘cover the bases’ but this approach is still a crap shoot in terms of eating based on functional physiology or energetic demand. Following guidelines accompanied with the intent to prevent disease falls short of higher thinking, namely eating and training to promote health and regeneration. Trying to merely avoid disease is not the same as the expressed intent to promote health on a number of levels. This is akin to a golfer visualizing a tree and thinking, “Don’t hit the tree” just before teeing off. Working to avoid disease doesn’t mean you are doing what you need to do or eating what you need to eat to promote health and regeneration. You cannot know this unless you examine how your body uses nutrients in terms of energy and energetic relationships.

A wholistic, physics based ‘energetic model’ exposes wrong thinking expressed by ‘experts’ who have not been trained to think in terms of functional physical relationships. All this becomes clear through lessons on exercise physiology, which includes biomechanics, anatomy, and biochemistry.

Part II: The Art of Challenging Assumptions

Fortunately, a magician faces little to no resistance in ‘forcing a thought’ upon the audience, since most people possess no ‘magic knowledge’ and/or have nothing personally at stake regarding the outcome of someone applying the ‘science of magic’. The opposite is true when it comes to teaching the science of nutrition or applying exercise techniques. People hold deeply rooted beliefs, practice ingrained habits, and certainly do care about outcomes; resistance is common. So naturally, pointed questions tinged with disbelief often arise in peoples’ minds after their assumptions are challenged by factual statements such as, “fat is the primary fuel for the body at rest and during low to moderate exercise intensities”. Weight resists your movement, so why shouldn’t thoughts that challenge yours have a similar effect on your thoughts?  Challenging assumptions is a hallmark of effective teaching.

Accordingly, I deliberately create phrases to challenge assumptions or ‘force’ concepts that may sound counterintuitive, but are irrefutable facts, such as:

“Cardiac output is identical in trained athletes and couch potatoes (untrained humans) at virtually all intensity levels.” Shown in frame 1, below left.

Frame 2: “Fat is the primary fuel for the body at rest and during low, moderate, and moderately high intensity levels.”

Frame 3: “Training does nothing to improve one’s ability to increase cardiac output or increase oxygen consumption.” (This applies to any given intensity level except maximum intensity, which is unsustainable.)

Frame 4: “Fat is the main fuel for the heart.” A strong and therefore healthy heart utilizes fat as its main fuel. As it begins to weaken and fail, carbohydrate replaces fat as the primary fuel. But progressively toward failure, each fuel is used less and less.



All the statements above are simply straight talk that people are not used to hearing. Dealing with perception is paramount. Providing a different perspective for people – as opposed to spoon feeding them with cliches that conform to expectation – stirs the thought pot and invites pointed questions. Posing a challenging question or statement ferrets out people’s beliefs, which helps both teachers and students clarify thoughts and identify where a ‘disconnect’ exists with respect to integrating parts within a whole. Schematics and visual props enable people to visualize connections among the parts of the whole. Understanding the connections between food and energy production is made possible by matching ‘activity’ of unseen metabolic events in muscle cells to the simultaneous movement of the whole body. But even this technique is limited; and this limitation points to the value of the next lesson.


Lesson 3: Expand Your Limits - Look to Phenomena in Nature to Understand the Body

We, as scientific investigators, observe phenomena ‘not of the body’ to explain the identical physical event occurring within the human body. For example, the yellowing in the image below resulted from a free radical chain reaction, which occurs readily to unsaturated fats in both food and in your body.  The yellow stuff shows how unsaturated fat in soybean oil (in a blob of fresh bleu cheese dressing) reacted with oxygen. This oxidative reaction turns oils such as flax-seed or fish oil into wood varnish. This reaction is equivalent to ‘the chemistry of aging your skin’, the ‘free radical chain reaction’, or ‘suppressing your immune system’. Unsaturated fats are the type of fats which, by definition make whole food fats oxidatively unstable, and make LDL cholesterol dangerous in terms of increasing risk of coronary heart disease, (not saturated fats). The ‘classical’ lipid-heart hypothesis is not supported by evidence; it is a falsehood that has become a myth. A myth is not necessarily invalid information or untrue, but many falsehoods become myths.



Going forward, many lessons will show images of various phenomena you have seen or experienced in the outside world and match these to the identical phenomena occurring in the body as a bridge to understand how the body works. It is important to realize much of what we know about how the body works resulted because we first discovered how a process works in nature, and afterwards found out the same event happens in the body.

The next section compares muscles, lighting, water, and brain cells. Women, athletes who need to develop explosiveness, and power lifters should understand the details in this lesson. The physical training techniques for getting stronger, faster, explosive – but not bigger, derive from applying the ‘electro-physiological’ principles in this lesson.


Lesson 4: Muscles, Lightning, Brain Cells and Water

Part I: Usain Bolt, Electricity, Potassium, and High Intensity Muscle Contractions

Analogizing and comparing two different things often helps you understand the one thing you really need to understand. For example, this section compares different tissues of the body to one another, specifically brain to muscles. It may not seem like it now, but comparing the two provides powerful insight into principles of strength training, nutrition, and more.


A ‘tissue’ is simply a specific body part made up of particular cells. In other words, a group of cells ‘clumped’ together into an organized fashion make up a tissue. A specific tissue must function a certain way, like a fist-sized group of muscle cells contracting and pumping blood 24/7. Obviously, I just described heart tissue. Other tissues include brain, kidney, ovary, bone, prostate gland, etcetera, but keep in mind cells of specific tissue perform a specific purpose. For example, pancreas cells secrete insulin, ovary cells secrete estrogen and progesterone, and nerve cells send electrical signals.


Activating cells within a muscle or your brain resembles lightning ‘sparking’ within a thundercloud supercell. Below: two photos extracted from a video I took on my cell phone while steering clear of a tornado, headed eastward, south of I-80 in Nebraska, June, 2010.



The next several sections show how muscles and brain cells work ‘electrically’ through combining photos of a gigantic storm cloud with images of similar phenomena occurring in the human body.

The graph below shows potassium forced out of a muscle during repeated bouts of 1 minute of high intensity exercise. The moment lightning lights the sky (in frame 2 above) is analogous when the electrolyte potassium ‘shoots out’ of a muscle cell, graphed below.




This video demonstrates throwing common table salt (Na+ CL-) onto fresh frog legs ‘spark’ the electrical twitch of muscle cells. A muscle activates or ‘twitches’ as electrolytes pass through the exposed surface and into the muscle cells. We could also make a frog leg twitch by applying an electric current directly into the muscle with an electrode. Imagine the force produced by your muscle analogous to either a small or large stroke of lightning. The magnitude of the force produced by a muscle increases proportionally to the amount of ionic flow. If salt could be thrown on all the cells 3-dimensionally throughout the leg – and not just the surface of a few exterior cells – a more forceful twitch would occur. The ‘muscle twitch phenomenon’ or ‘action potential’ was once taught traditionally in high school biology classes by applying small or larger amounts of electricity to the frog leg to make it twitch either weakly or more forcefully. Sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium have the same effect as applying elctricity directly with an electrode. This explains why we call these minerals electrolytes. 




Normally, the time frame of a lightning strike or potassium discharge during a single muscle twitch lasts only for milliseconds. This means both cloud cells and muscle cells quickly ‘relax’ and return to their resting state. At rest, each cell is potentially ready to ‘spark’ a new discharge. However, in the case of a constantly working muscle, potassium discharge continues unabated. This explains the rapid release of potassium, graphed below during 1-minute of high intensity exercise. In this case the cell does not relax; it stays ‘excited’ as potassium rapidly discharges out of muscles into the blood stream (labeled arterial plasma, middle frame below). Potassium levels return to ‘normal/resting’ levels after 4 minutes of rest. Extremely high potassium levels in the blood stream can stop your heart from beating. For example, Lee Harvey Oswald died not directly from his gunshot wound, but from excessive potassium released into his blood, which lead to cardiac arrest. Read this article, by Ray Peat to see his explanation.



You just learned an ‘imbalance’ of the electrolyte potassium can ‘arrest’ your heart beat. But the overall lesson is electrolytes constantly flow into and out of your cells in a never ending ‘balancing act’.

Contracting your muscles cause a momentary ‘imbalance’ of electrolytes as cells ‘activate’ but then should ‘rebalance’ on each side of the cell membrane as cells ‘relax’… all as quick as lighting. Magnesium relaxes the body by relaxing your muscles electrically. Calcium ions make your muscles ‘twitchy’ and when you die, calcium leakage permanently contracts your muscles as if posing like a body builder. We call this rigor mortis. People commonly take magnesium to regulate their heart beat in the sense the heart must ‘relax’ effectively in order to ‘beat’ effectively. The heart is electrical, muscle are too. Muscles produce ‘more power’ similarly to the heart when properly relaxed; the key to a ‘fast muscle’ is a relaxed muscle. See Olympic 100meter dash sprinters express exactly this in this video.

‘Normal’ physiology, health of blood and cells, and water balance are regulated by electrolytes. Magnesium is difficult to obtain comparatively to sodium, potassium and calcium. Potassium and magnesium deserve more attention, comparatively to calcium and sodium.

In a human cell, flow of electrolytes, water, and all nutrients is a two-way street, so imagine ‘ebb and flow’ like the ocean tide. Essentially, salty water stuff moves back and forth in cycles.

Next, we examine what happens when the balance of electrolytes becomes ‘unbalanced’ within the watery medium surrounding cells.  


HEADLINE: Jennifer Strange, 28, died Jan. 12, 2007 of water intoxication, or hyponatremia, after drinking more than 1.5 gallons of water while taking part in a "Hold Your Wee for a Wii" contest.

An overflow of water into her brain cells killed her. The next few sections illustrate the ‘ebb and flow’ of water and electrolytes into and out of cells of the human body.




First, we compare the similarity of a thundercloud and the transfer of ions within a supercell and a human cell. Ions have plus or minus charges whether dissolved in water/blood or suspended in air. In frame 1, ions in a thundercloud supercell build up, establishing a ‘static electrical potential’. Then a ‘discharge’ of ionic flow lights the sky and ‘activates’ the cloud cell, frame 2. The cell ‘relaxes’ into darkness, frame 3. 


The lightning ‘flash’ is analogous to the moment K+ (potassium) is rapidly discharged out of a cell during 1 minute of intense exercise.




In a human cell, electrolyte exchange is only ‘half the story’ of activating a cell; water is ‘pulled’ simultaneously into a cell as it activates. Remember, movement of ions or salt into a muscle cell makes it twitch or contract, as seen in the frog video. But what you did not see is water moving into the cell as ions move.


Normally, water immediately moves back outside the cell as it relaxes. In other words, the balance of electrolytes on each side of the cell returns to their ‘normal’ resting concentrations. More specifically, after stopping exercise, water moves outward from muscle cells to ‘calm’ and relax the muscle; electrolytes also flow back in/out to their ‘normal’ respective positions/concentrations. However, ‘overly sustained’ exercise or chronic overuse ‘pulls’ water into cells – and tends to keep water from leaving cells even after stopping exercise. This explains why chronically fatigued nerves and muscles ‘hold water’.


An extreme form of ‘cells holding water’ explains what killed Jennifer Strange as illustrated below.



Notice in frame 2 above, chloride (not calcium) triggered the cell; in this case the cell of a gland, not a muscle cell. This serves to show particular cells use different ionic ‘triggers’. Calcium ions trigger muscle contractions, which explains why rigor mortis occurs after death. Water and ionic flow occurs in all cells, not just muscle, brain, or peripheral nerve cells. For the record, the creator of this sketch annotated it, Illustrating mechanism for transportation of water and electrolytes across epithelial cells in secretory glands. See the original sketch; click here.


Part II: Relaxation vs. Excitation (or ‘Action Potential’) 

Human cells ‘relax’ or become electrically ‘excited’ due to the ebb and flow of water and minerals.

A relaxed muscle is one that has potential, but is doing nothing, similar to the frame 1 storm cloud, when conditions for a lightning strike is ripe. In other words, a resting thundercloud or a resting cell is polarized, meaning it has a strong ‘electrical action potential’ like a super strong battery, the type you prefer to have in your car when it’s 20 below freaking zero in January. Polarized electrical charges simply indicate a division of plus/minus charges exists, but other things may be polarized too, such as political views or the air of Earth. For example, the cold north and south poles of the earth are ‘polarized’ in terms of temperature, comparatively to the hot equatorial region. 



The ‘official’ way to graph a muscle’s electric potential, shown next to the thundercloud isn’t compatible with the way physics is classically taught or with the humans perceive ‘positive and negative’ with respect to flat ground, (i.e. high above ground = positive and below ground = negative). The next section corrects this problem.

First, the ‘official’ way to graph action potential above misleads people to think “potential = action” by labeling the peak of the red line ‘action potential’. The cell has ‘potential to take action’ where the red line is flat, at -70mV.  This is when a cell is in the rested ‘polarized state’ – relaxed. At -70 mV you are doing nothing, akin to a battery not cranking the starter when your car engine is off or to a ball resting on the edge of a hill ‘waiting’ to get pushed and roll down the hill.  In classical physics, potential never represents action. For example, height of a hill represents potential energy not the action.

The height at which you stand on the top rung of a ladder represents the quantity of potential energy, not action. Hence, the polarized state of a relaxed muscle is similar to standing high up on a ladder. This explains why I flipped the graph upside down, placed the bottom of the ladder at the ‘zero: no polarization’ ground state. Now -70mV is ‘above ground’ and corresponds to our way of perceiving potential energy in the real world. The zero state equates to a balance of positive and negative charges on each side of a cell membrane. In a zero charge state we would be dead, muscles would not contract, and brain cells would not light up an MRI scan. Now you understand the condition from which Mary Shelley imagined the creation of Frankenstein. The original title was Frankenstein or The Modern Prometheus. Prometheus.


We sense things fall downhill, not up. But since electrical charges are arbitrary, scientists classically plot negative charges below zero. Hence, the maximum potential energy is at the bottom of the graph at -70mv. But in the ‘fixed’ yellow to the right of Earth -70 is now ‘up from zero or ‘flat ground’. Further, as a cell ‘depolarizes’ it becomes positively charged for a moment and hence repolarizes in the opposite direction. This should be termed ‘moment of action’ as opposed to action potential. Then there’s a refractory period. I renamed this ‘hyper-rebound’ in the fixed yellow graph. Discharge, refractory periods, rebounds, hmm… double entendres!


Part III: Pain, Stress, Inflammation, and Swelling

Build the Integrative Power of Your Brain and Keep Pushing the Limits.

An excited or relaxed cell is synonymous with the flow of water and electrolytes. In short, mineral or ion flow across a cell membrane = ‘electrolyte activity’ like a lightning bolt. Muscle, nerve, or uterus cells all react similarly to their degree of hydration, and mineral ‘charge’. (Nerve cells may be peripheral, spinal, or brain cells) It’s easy to know and feel when a muscle cell is ‘stimulated’ or ‘excited’ muscle cell because we feel tension and/or move. It’s easy to feel and imagine a muscle cell at rest too. But it is NOT easy to know or feel nerve cells ‘excite’ or ‘activate’ like a muscle until we feel pain. The connections among cell ‘excitation/relaxation’ and ‘water/mineral’ balance and pain and pathology are rarely made or understood. But all cells react essentially the same way muscle cells do when excited or at rest. See an animation of an ‘action potential’ in a human cell, click here.

Chronic fatigue and stress is synonymous with ‘overexcitation’ of your body (cells). Imbalanced electrical forces, i.e. imbalanced electrolyte flow keep cells activated and prevent them from relaxing. Water moves concomitantly with electrolytes and is ‘held’ in place by electrical force. Water held in a cell is a reflection of overstimulated swollen cells. Chronic excitation is synonymous with a fatigued cell – nerve or muscle. ‘Globally’ speaking - in terms of your whole body - chronically excited cells are simply fatigued cells, whether they are nerve, muscle, brain, or prostate gland cells. Overhydration = excessive water maintained or ‘held’ inside a cell.

Inflammation is:swelling of a cell or entire ‘compartment’ of tissue.” For example, an enlarged heart is a swollen heart; all the muscle cells have ‘swelled’ similarly to the inflammation you see on your skin from a mosquito bite. It is no coincidence that an enlarged heart is a failing heart – a fatigued and swollen heart – deprived of energy or incapable of using energy because it has been overstimulated and ‘tired’. At the micro level, overexcited nerve cells in the wrist may swell, which causes pain associated with carpal tunnel syndrome. An underactive thyroid or hypothyroidism can cause nerves to swell. Obviously, realizing how such connections exist requires further study. 

Generally, we do not sense low levels of inflammation or ‘excitation’. The degree to which inflammation may be damaging or healing the body, depends on whether it is an acute short term response or chronic condition. We readily notice high level, acute responses of swelling such as a mosquito bite or severe ankle sprain. Water just gets ‘shoved around’ from one space to another and expands the cells – or may leak out of the blood stream into the space around cells. You can learn to feel low levels of inflammation, which is wise if you are an athlete who wants to avoid injury and overtraining. Discover how by asking questions.

Electrophysiology is the key for understanding strength training, pain, inflammation, and the immune system. Once you visualize the division among spaces and parts within your body - health and function all comes down to nutrients, ions, and water moving from one compartment to another. Water and ions remain suspended in position or ‘held in check’ by electrical repulsion like 2 magnets repelling one another. Water and ions constantly flow across space from one compartment to another when a disturbance occurs. You are alive, so disturbance is the norm.

You disturb the resting ‘ionic state’ of a muscle when you move. Unlike any other cell, you control muscle cells, so you control the electrical force and the power or strength applied. Essentially, examining flow of water and the ions, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and chloride into and out of a body part is a gateway for concretely understanding fatigue, injuries, diseases, and many problems with the body. And where there’s a gateway, you often find a simple solution to the problem. To learn more, read Ray Peat’s article Water: swelling, tension, pain, fatigue, aging.

Mineral balance goes hand in hand with water balance. Hydration is controlled by minerals. Water flow ‘obeys’ electrolyte balance. Electrolyte drinks are ‘supposed to’ maintain mineral/water balance but usually provide too much sodium and not enough potassium.

This section was just an introduction to the purpose and wisdom of comparison, metaphor, and analogy. It is not only helpful to compare different types of cells to one another such as brain cells to muscle cells – it is also useful to analogize a lightning bolt to the ‘spark’ of a cell as it relaxes or ‘gets excited’. Linus Pauling called minerals the ‘spark of life’ for a very good reason, because it is so. Static electric force is a ‘physical force’ we humans can learn to manipulate for improving the health of our blood and cells.

Analogizing or comparing two different things often helps to better understand the one thing you really need to understand. Making connections is the key to building an integrated view of the whole.

Lesson 5: Fermentation and the Origins of Energy Balance Experiments

No doubt, it’s strange to hear for the very first time, “Fermentation is occurring right now within your intestines and muscles.”

Consider a typical probiotic supplement available at a health food store. Notice the package label does not list the word ‘bacteria’ or say ‘10 Bacterial Strains’. But it does say ‘10 Probiotic Strains’ read just below ‘25 Billion’. Eating bacteria does not sound as appetizing as eating probiotics or as beautiful as flora.  Bacteria in your intestines = probiotics.

Probiotics or bacteria are tiny organisms that transform carbohydrate into a variety of acids.


The yellow text above lists the bacteria living in your intestines, including some that live in your mouth. The white text represents the ‘poop’ produced by bacteria after feeding on carbohydrate. One man’s waste is another man’s treasure; these ‘wastes’ benefit your health and immune system because acids are antimicrobial.

Lactic acid is just one of several acids produced within your gut. The sharp distinctive taste in yogurt, kefir, and buttermilk is lactic acid. Lactobacillus is the ‘live active culture’ or bacteria commonly listed on a yogurt label. Lactobacillus ferments sugar in milk into lactic acid.

Notice streptococci also ferments sugar into lactic acid. ‘Strep’ is always present in your mouth in low amounts, ready to feed on sugars you eat. Between visits to the dentist this bacteria multiplies and builds up into the plaque (or biofilm) that accumulates on the border of your teeth and gums, unless you decide to scrape it off by yourself. Bacteria live in many places on our body and regularly buildup into a bacterial community called biofilms, e.g. mucus like coatings on the trachea, vagina, prosthetic metal hip replacements, and slime on teeth or rocks in a stream. Biofilms can be beneficial or harmful, just like ‘good’ or ‘bad’ bacteria.

Frame 1 below shows the monthly alteration in the vaginal biofilm community that corresponds to menses each month. Frame 2 shows biofilm coating a platinum wire, similar to the growth on metal hip replacements. Frame 3 shows the biofilm living in the appendix, readily available for release into the proximal colon if ‘good bacteria’ populations in the colon need ‘help to replenish’ or fight infection. Notice the word ‘mucin’ in frame 3, similar to mucus, which builds up in our throats and nasal passages when we fight infections.



Many other important lessons on nutrition and exercise science require knowing where gut flora live within the intestinal tract in cows and humans. For example, if greater numbers of bacteria lived in the upper section of the small intestine, we would absorb much less calories due to bacteria consuming food before we could absorb this energy into our blood stream. Weight loss and starvation would result. As shown before, the darker shaded areas correspond to higher population density of gut bacteria and higher rates of fermentation.



As shown in lesson 1, carbohydrates ferment into lactic acid within the ‘bacterial section’ of your muscle cells. Below: A student’s hand drawn ‘muscle cell’. The cytosol of the cell is labeled ‘bacterial region’.



Unfortunately, modern people commonly view fermentation narrowly or in a restricted sense, namely as just a way to make alcohol. This is the fault of modern scientists and writers who quit using the word fermentation in books and articles on nutrition and exercise. Fermentation classically refers to cellular conversion of sugar to lactic acid during anaerobic metabolism. Hence, early investigators used the words ‘sugar fermentation’; today’s term is glycolysis.  

In the early 20th century, the language used to describe physiology and nutritional events was the same as describing natural, familiarly known physical phenomena. For example, aerobic metabolism and respiration was referred to as ‘combustion of food stuffs’ as if burning wood or coal. This crossover mentality resulted in experiments and their subsequent description to be congruent with the common man’s perception. Moreover, it was unnecessary to tell people they were learning some sort of special ‘integrated form’ of nutrition. Below, milk burns in a locomotive firebox similarly to combusting food stuffs within a human muscle cell. When combusted, energy in milk converts to heat, within our body or in a firebox.



The common man’s psyche and the physician’s education once developed from common roots – language and experience wise. Consider the fact over 90% of Americans once farmed. Most people understood fermentation and fermented foods, directly from experience. For example, farm children carried buttermilk into the kitchen after milk fermented. People learned through smell, taste, and touch; many things grown ferment. Icky, smelly stuff was part of the home environment. Using a historical perspective, we see why scientists used the word ‘fermentation’ and why virtually everyone – even children – would not be completely baffled by the scientist’s statement, “Muscles ferment carbohydrates into acid during high intensity exercise.” Tell kids the acid in muscles is the same acid that produces the distinctive taste in yogurt, buttermilk, and specific other foods and they got the idea transformations in the body mirror transformations in nature. Child or adult – it is not important or necessary to examine the details of the chemical reaction at first; it is more important to realize connections.

In such an early stage of scientific exploration when scientists, educated people, or farm-raised ‘uneducated’ folks remained connected by words and experience, most anyone could concretely understand scientific descriptions of how the body works. But when modern scientists and writers living in a fragmented age of specialization no longer themselves know the natural phenomena or the words to make useful comparisons, then an integrated view of the world diminishes. Strict definitions are practically useless in the early stages of learning. For example, ‘glycolysis’ - defined as the splitting of glucose into pyruvic acid - provides no sensible or contextual meaning to a person. But when people learn sugar in grapes ferment into alcohol (wine), probiotics in the gut ferment sugar into acids, and muscles ferment sugar into acid too, the entire physical world becomes a cohesive picture that makes ‘more sense’.

As words like fermentation and combustion were abandoned through the 20th century, new terms, new foods, new perceptions, and new science degrees were concomitantly created. Glycolysis replace fermentation, margarine replaced butter. The rise of the exercise physiologist, nutritionist, and athletic trainer coincided with industry growth, technological advances in medicine and sports, and mounting pressure on kids to play a single sport year round.

Throughout the 20th century companies like the Newfoundland Butter Company, General Mills and Pillsbury spawned a cornucopia of supposedly new healthy foods like margarine and low or no-calorie foods through the creative powers of the food scientist. Coincidentally, the general practice MD and celebrity pitchmen like William Shatner espoused the promise of margarine and the heart-health benefits of trans-fat laden ‘manufactured oils’.  Hydrogenated fat became suitable for the Betty Crockers of America who loved baking pies and were convinced not to use lard or butter. New paradigms replaced old paradigms. The food pyramid replaced the four food groups. Clever ways to follow new rules were devised to fit with how new foods ‘worked’. Dietitians and other institutional lackeys dispense advice based on guidelines and pyramid schemes, created not by competent scientists but by big government and lobby groups. Now we have food engineers, fish and flax-seed oil, aka linseed oil or varnish, and GMO’s.

Viewing the way food actually works within the human body - based on physics - became obfuscated by redirecting people to focus on the possibility and fear of acquiring ‘negative health outcomes’ based on risk factors. Eating to prevent disease became a ‘lifestyle’ aimed to avoid the spectre of harm associated with risk factors and supposed genetic pre-determinism - as opposed to intentionally ‘eating to promote health’ based on how foods and environment change expression of genes after we are born. People aim to not hit the tree or avoid the water when teeing off. Fear is the motivator; avoidance of sickness or the hazard, as opposed to communing with physical regeneration or the fairway is a goal for many people. Epidemiology the dirty science became the ‘gold standard’ for medicine and for creating guidelines of nutrition. The divorce between physics and medicine was filed for decades ago. As a result, fat or oil – the main fuel for the body – is no longer recognized as ‘healthy fuel’ for the body.

Fat and oil are two words used to describe the same substance. For example, just because vegetable oil becomes solid via hydrogenation does not mean it is no longer ‘oil’. We just call oils ‘fat’ just as we call ice, ‘ice’ – not water – in order to clarify our physical perception. Muddying the waters further regarding the perception of  ‘healthy fat’ is the fact oils used for varnishing wood and seasoning cast iron pans, e.g. fish oil and flax-seed oil now sell in health food stores. Traditionally, these oils are called drying oils because they react with oxygen and ‘dry up’ into varnish. Researchers call these fats ‘anti-inflammatory’ but may fail to realize this is synonymous with suppressing the immune system. Anti-inflammatory oils, like cortisone injections for injured athletes may be good for short term relief, but not for long term health and healing. This writer knows these statements may bewilder ‘educated’ modern thinkers because he too stood in other shoes and did not know the physics, chemistry, or history of oil, metabolism, and physiology. In order to gain a clear understanding of the present situation it is wise to examine original research.

We digress. Winding back the clock to the late 1800’s we see nutritionists and exercise scientists did not exist in name but did in practice, as formally trained chemists, physiologists, and physicists. And if we return to a point in time where nutrition and exercise science in its modern integrated form originated, we see one man named W.O. Atwater, an agricultural chemist.

A cursory look at the words Atwater to describe food, calories, energy, and regeneration of the human body demonstrates ‘straight physical talk’. Food may be defined as material which, when taken into the body, serves to either form tissue or yield energy, or both. This definition includes all the ordinary food materials, since they both build tissue and yield energy. It includes sugar and starch, because they yield energy and form fatty tissue. It includes alcohol, because the latter is burned to yield energy, though it does not build tissue. It includes creatin, creatinin, [sic] and other so-called nitrogenous extractives of meat, and likewise caffeine of tea and coffee, because they neither build tissue nor yield energy, although they may, at times, be useful aids to nutrition.”  W.O. Atwater: 1905, pictured below.



Even non-scientist writers from the past described the physiology of weight loss and thermodynamics in a ‘superior scientific way’ compared to modern scientists and writers. For example, read chapter 1: Preliminary Bout in a book written by Lulu Hunt Peters in 1918 – click this link. She uses the term ‘fireless cooker’ to describe the lack of heat loss in people who have trouble losing weight, which is not only brilliant, but also explains why so many modern scientists fail to understand the fundamental physics of weight loss and calories. Studying physics is not primarily about examining the origins of the universe; it was and still is simply studying anything and everything physical, human body included. The word physician derives from the art and science of practicing physics. To ‘take a physic’ once meant to swallow medicine. ‘Physical training’ is practicing physics. The study of physics, exercise science, and nutrition were one and the same to the seminal researchers from the past.


Look no further to seek the seminal research. The next section shows photographs from the ‘original energy balance experiments’ and briefly describes the essentials of metabolic science and exercise physiology. This is to warm up to examining nutrition and exercise science in a new, ‘old’ way.

Now we have traced back to the origin of energy balance experiments. The photo below resulted from experimental studies on food and humans conducted by Atwater and Benedict in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. By 1906, Benedict, a physiologist and magician mastered the modern technique use to calculate the quantity of carbs and fat burned by the body during rest or exercise.

This man exhaled into a mask in order to collect the carbon dioxide (CO2) expelled from his lungs with each breath. The scientists Atwater and Benedict compared the volume of CO2 expelled to the volume of oxygen he consumed in order to quantify carbohydrate and fat used by his body at any intensity level.


Still to this day, you must wear a mask to measure the volume of oxygen breathed and the carbon dioxide breathed out.


Comparing the volume of one gas breathed out (carbon dioxide) to one gas breathed in (oxygen) is called the Respiration Exchange Ratio or RER for short. This is expressed in a ratio: [CO2/O2] The reason why RER exists is absurdly simple. Our cells consume O2 and then we blow out CO2. That’s it.

Within a muscle cell (or any cell) the chemistry of respiration is essentially a slower form of combusting a log in a fire. The chemical reaction in words is: Fuel combines with oxygen and produces the waste products CO2, H20, and Heat.

Any combustible fuel, e.g. coal, wood, milk, or coffee burns as long as oxygen is present - as demonstrated by the experiments below.


Practically all children learn the physics of creating fire. Do we not tell children, “throw some fuel on the fire!”? 


Calories were once called ‘Atwater Factors’. For a time his name was synonymous with the word calorie. Atwater’s calculations of the energy content of food made it possible to quantify how much energy humans used in terms of calories in and calories out.

Below is the actual copy from a popular magazine called New Century where the word ‘calorie’ appeared the first time ever in American print; published 1887. He indicated the heat contained in food (in calories per gram) for carbohydrate, protein, or fat as we know it today. Approximately 4 cal/g for protein and carbohydrate and 9 cal/g for fat.


Hence, the modern ‘Nutrition Facts’ label and modern listings for energy content in food derives from experiments calculated by Atwater, indicated as ‘fuel values’. The data below is still used today by commercial enterprise because it’s accurate.


Atwater was paid $7,500 (in early 21st century money) for each single article, (in a series of five articles) named The Chemistry of Food and Nutrition.

Imagine not ever hearing the names Isaac Newton or Albert Einstein when it comes to even the most casual learning environment on gravity, physics, light, or the universe. By casual, I mean just sitting around the campfire and musing over gravity, god, or existence while star gazing or trash talking to put someone down, “You ain’t no Einstein.” My point is omitting Atwater and Benedict’s names from the curriculum of any modern medical, nutrition, or exercise science exercise/sports science field (where you need to learn the most essential things like force, food, power, calories, speed, and energy) is equivalent to omitting Newton and Einstein from the books and lectures of the physics world. Keep in mind physics is the root word of physician and physiology.

Atwater’s human metabolism experiments were considered to be the dream project for the 19th century; he was perhaps the most famous scientist in the U.S. during the late 1800’s. However, some of the earliest metabolic experiments on humans were conducted in the 1770’s by Antoine Lavoisier. (Lavoisier later lost his head to the guillotine.)



Flash forward back to the 21st century. Gut flora education, probiotic supplements, and fermented drinks like kombucha have made a comeback. Although many people eat bacteria for health reasons, many people do not realize bacteria need to eat and do not realize properly feeding gut bacteria is more important than eating bacteria directly.

Bacteria do not eat themselves; they eat sugar or ‘prebiotics’. If you have a healthy and vigorous gut flora population, taking a probiotic supplement is as powerful as a fart in a hurricane. You are just adding a tiny fraction of bacteria to the billions already there.

Bacteria and muscle cells ferment carbs into acids at all times; this is why lactic acid is always present in our blood in small amounts at rest and high amounts during high intensity exercise.

High intensity exercise is just fermentation speeded up within a muscle, as cells have a feeding frenzy on sugar.

The present often circles back to the past. Atwater and people in his time used the word ‘ferment’ to describe muscle metabolism. Now we do too. Using this word is more sensible because it paints a more physically coherent picture in terms relating ‘like events’ occurring within guts, muscles, a beer fermentation vat, or anywhere else within or on your body where bacteria live and eat.

As we go forward, we’ll continue to use words and imagery to build a greater picture.


Lesson 6: Linear Perception vs. Perceiving ‘Simultaneity’ (Image to Imagination)

The purpose of this section is to realize how words and imagery manipulate the perception of time as a teaching tool.

Western minds are generally conditioned to think in ‘action form’ through imagery and words – specifically in linear sequences where time appears to flow from the past to the future. The comic strip and a film strip both consist of ‘time flow’ action panels.


Writing in
active voice and communicating via linear time-based images prevent your brain from perceiving two different physical phenomena that are actually the same event. It is difficult to understand this in words, so I’ll use images to convey these ideas.

Anyone knows two different things can occur simultaneously. For example, you can laugh while your little brother cries. Each is a different physical phenomenon and there’s no doubt they could occur at the same time.

It is difficult however, for the brain to perceive two different physical things that are actually the same event. In this case, the only way each physical thing can be shown to describe one event is if and only if they occur simultaneously. You have already been shown images that accomplished the task. You just haven’t been made conscious of what you’ve seen. Now is the time.


External movement of your whole body and unseen metabolic events in your muscle cells occur simultaneously. The two physical phenomena shown above (running and fermentation) do not occur separately with respect to time. The only way to see this is to ‘freeze time’ and show at least two images that actually represent the same event taken as a whole. Described more specifically in words, “What happens microscopically and unseen within the body’s cells at a specific moment synchronizes with its simultaneous but different physical-form.” To say each form or phenomenon is a different event is not correct because taken as a whole it is/they are the same event.

In other words, functional nutrition and physical movement occur simultaneously.

Hardly anyone thinks of nutrition as an event, in concrete terms. However, people often speak of ‘metabolism’ as an event that has a concrete outcome such as weight gain or weight loss. Such an outcome can only occur because functional nutrition is metabolism. Nutrition is an active event. (Duh! Duh – as in epiphany.) In all three cases below, you ‘see a cell’ fermenting carbohydrates joined to its other simultaneous external form, as seen by the naked eye. Keep in mind, resting must be considered as part of the whole.



Perceiving simultaneity is not limited to just two forms; we feel other ‘simultaneous counterparts’ (e.g. pressure in joints, muscle tension, pain or exhilaration) as we experience the movement of our bodies or the release of stress that comes with deep breathing and the slowing of our heart rate. The image of the woman sitting peacefully captures such a moment in time.

If you have ever heard anyone say, “I can feel down to the cellular level”, then this lesson shows you how it is at least possible to begin connecting with your body in such a way. You can learn to feel your ligaments and tendons – safely – in such a manner that you are ‘your own MRI’. I will be teaching this later this semester. You want integrated education? You got it.

In short, either clumsy or athletically skilled movement occurs in concert with our ‘emotional content’ as well as chemical transformations of matter in the microscopic ‘cell space’ of muscles. See the beginning of Enter the Dragon with Bruce Lee to understand what I mean by emotional content. (or ask me)


Passive Voice vs. Active Voice, Imagery, and Conditioning

Usually, non-fiction writing calls for using ‘active voice’. But Passive voice should sometimes be used deliberately as a device to ‘force’ the reader to focus solely on an object, as opposed to a person or thing taking action and imposing change upon an object.  For example, earlier I wrote in passive voice, “Acid is always created in a cell” as opposed to, “Cells always create acid” (active voice). I wanted you to focus on acid, not on the cell taking action. Consider this in light of a ‘quick and dirty tip’ from a teacher on the topic of using passive voice vs. active voice, “One clue that your sentence is passive is that the subject isn't taking a direct action.” (Mignon Fogarty, Grammar Girl)

Active voice (or a comic strip) presents a ‘problem’ when the purpose is to focus on two physical phenomena that must be shown to happen simultaneously. For example, I could write, “Muscle cells ferment carbohydrates into acids as the runners sprint down the track.” You may understand this now, but this would not make much sense to a person who has not yet learned each piece of the whole, as shown in the earlier sections of this book. I sometimes used passive voice and imagery to force focus on each object independently. Passive voice and imagery work together; each portray simultaneity and freeze time. The image below ‘freezes time’.  When we ‘freeze time’ no action is taking place, there is only the sense of what ‘is’ or things as they ‘are’.



In short, passive voice mirrors the way our brains hold an image. People who like mysteries do not mind the use of passive voice, because it leaves a person hanging on the image, remaining clueless of who or what acted upon the object. Patient curiosity trumps frenetic impatience. Conversely, action based writing, e.g. Russell Wilson scrambles, evades a sack, throws on the run deep downfield to Percy Harvin, Harvin leaps for the ball and runs in for the TD” are moving images of thought like a film strip. Without question, images that make ‘time appear’ makes it impossible to imagine ‘simultaneity’ of two different phenomena.

Without knowing it, our brains are conditioned by linear-time action sequences.

Fortunately, we can condition our brains to use words and imagery to imagine ‘simultaneity’. This is harder for many Western people but not Japanese people because they are culturally conditioned from an early age by images that depict simultaneity from a young age; (see references and my remarks soon below on this thought).

You Can’t Imagine Unless You Activate Your Image-In. (Imagination)

By using words and imagery ‘passively’ I am often showing you to not think (but to just perceive and develop an imagination, Image-I-Nation) Rhetorical question: Do you recall ever being told or saying, “Learn it by Heart”. Clearly, this is a level that indicates we know something so well we don’t have to think about how do it or we recall the meaning or definition of something instantly.

Just as there is no need to think after you master the mechanics of a dead lift, singing a song, serving a tennis ball, using a stick-shift, or playing a musical instrument, once you know what a complex image shows, there is no need to think. Recall the advice and the purpose of Video 1: Image Imprinting, “I don’t want you to think, I want you to see, just watch the video.”

Even though the images in this video transitioned quickly – they were not depicting a linear series of images to tell a story – but flashed single images, which are used in this book/class/seminar to synthesize a greater coherent whole. Connecting images you know by heart, stored in your head, is a way to develop a slower, but more powerful reasoning ability. As you read or come across new information your brain automatically ‘conjures up’ images connected to the new ‘bit’. But you have to know what the ‘bits of the whole’ represent in order to build the ever greater picture. I suggest you draw by hand to anchor your ability to hold images and cement what you learn more deeply.

Developing an imagination (the ability to picture things concretely) enables you to ‘see connections’ of phenomena occurring outside of the body in nature with ‘health phenomena’ occurring in the body. For example, the yellowing of the bleu cheese dressing shown below shows oxygen combined with the unsaturated fatty acids in the soybean oil. The whiter area was enclosed away from air (inside the turned upside down jar) but the part that yellowed was exposed to air (oxygen) and so oxidized overnight as it sat on my counter top!


The yellowing you see resulted from a free radical chain reaction, which occurs readily to unsaturated fats in both food and in your body. Polyunsaturated fats like fish oil, flax-seed oil, and walnut oil are especially vulnerable to this yellowing effect and therefore harmful to the body in technical terms, i.e. oxidative stress and free radical chain reactions. The only way for oil based paint to dry and produce a quality varnish is IF they are unsaturated fats. Saturated fats by definition are stable and not prone to oxidation, yellowing, or varnishing.

If you take anti-oxidants, you are trying to prevent oxidation or free radical chain reactions from destroying your cell membranes, similar to the image above where only the outer edge was ‘destroyed’. Moreover, this picture below explains why taking a purported healthy product like fish oil as a way to promote something ‘good’ is a great example of jamming a ‘bit of something that is true’ into a larger incorrect medical model. Yes it’s true that fish oil is anti-inflammatory, which = the true bit. But there’s a reason ‘overall’ why this effect is ‘not good’ in the long run.

Developing and synthesizing an image base enables you to integrate knowledge within your head. However, there are two points to remember:

Point 1: You just saw an example of a harmful chemical reaction that happens in your body and in nature. 

Point 2: It is crucial each ‘small picture’ (bit of information) is based on correct knowledge in order to avoid a structure of thinking (a theory) that is invalidated by an incorrect bit.


Comics, Communication, and Cultural Conditioning

I am aware of the enormous difficulty to describe and conceive ‘simultaneity’. The way images are presented in the USA (and many others) conditions all of us to perceive time and action in a certain way. I suggest reading Understanding Comics by Scott McCloud if you want to wrap your head around this more completely. Below: excerpt to the McCloud link.

Naturally, McCloud presents the ‘simultaneity concept’ in comic form to describe art, communication, and perception in his book. He shows examples of how the Japanese in particular express multiple images that reflect ‘simultaneity’ more often than any other culture. McCloud did not use the word ‘simultaneity’ – this author takes credit for this -Whoop dee ding and yippee kai-yay for me.

Keep in mind, the illustrations you see throughout this course show the ‘simultaneity’ of micro and macro events. Physics, art, medical science, and nutrition go hand in hand. Physiology is physics and art, and art is communication. I actually draw the concept of ‘action based linear perception vs. ‘perception of simultaneity’ in front of live audiences when it’s practical to do so. Many early physicians were artists. See Ray Peat’s article Painter Science on this topic!

Studies of Embryos by Leonardo da Vinci (Pen over red chalk 1510-1513)



Art not only simplifies health, nutrition and physical training science, but may be used to present metabolism as ‘it’ actually is – one event occurring simultaneously – as opposed to sets of incoherent, separate phenomena. Visualizing spaces within the body – compartmentalizing it – similarly to visualizing the location and separation of objects within in a space in your home such as your bedroom must be an ability you develop if you want to master just the basics of health, nutrition, and exercise science.

A lot of details about nutrition, physiology, and health can be learned from a single schematic showing the pathway food and oxygen take to get into the blood, and then to muscles – as depicted below in a schematic titled: “The Anatomy of Food and Oxygen Delivery”. (Lesson 8 from The Physical Rules by this author)




Lesson 7: Messages from Masters of Nature, Science, and Economics

Notice the thread of common thought shared by the following people, even though each work(ed) within a different field or century. (highlighted and bolded).

Galileo Galilei: See now the power of truth; the same experiment which at first glance seemed to show one thing, when more carefully examined, assures us of the contrary.

David R. Caprette, Rice University

Textbooks seldom tell us how much science knows and does not know about them (microtubules), and of course they cannot keep up with the latest discoveries. To fully understand a subject it is important to go to multiple sources. If the subject is especially important to you, you should seek the primary literature, namely original research reports.

Medical Gas Research
 2011, 1:23 doi:10.1186/2045-9912-1-23, Commentary:

Often times in the day to day work of scientific endeavor, our efforts are not so much discovery as window dressing. Innovation has become a casualty of increasingly limited resources and the demands for concrete results in return for investment. Thus, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) tend to fund known investigators in established project lines and we learn more and more about vanishingly small and irrelevant details of things such as the thromboelastographic characterization of fibrinolysis, while the incidence of autism in the United States stands at 1 in 110 children and continues to increase without explanation [1]. Similarly, commercial scientific funding emphasizes the certain result, that is, the "win", rather than a gamble on the unknown.

Paul Krugman

 “I was naive about many things. But my biggest misconception was this: I actually believed that influential people could be moved by evidence, that they would change their views if events completely refuted their beliefs.”

Gilbert Ling:

The last 50 years in the history of life sciences are remarkable for a new important feature that looks as a great threat for their future. A profound specialization dominating in quickly developing fields of science causes a crisis of the scientific method. The essence of the method is a unity of two elements, the experimental data and the theory that explains them. To us, "fathers" of science, classically, were (are) the creators of new ideas and theories. They were the true experts of their own theories. It is only they who have the right to say: "I am the theory". In other words, they were carriers of theories, of the theoretical knowledge. The fathers provided the necessary logical integrity to their theories, since theories in biology have not still to be based on strict mathematical proofs. It is not true for sons. As a result of massive specialization, modern experts operate in very confined spaces. They formulate particular rules far from the level of theory. The main theories of science are known to them only at the textbook level. Nowadays, nobody can say: "I am the theory". With whom, then is it possible to discuss today on a broader theoretical level? How can a classical theory - for example, the membrane one - be changed or even disproved under these conditions? How can the "sons" with their narrow education catch sight of membrane theory defects? As a result, "global" theories have few critics and control. Due to specialization, we have lost the ability to work at the experimental level of biology within the correct or appropriate theoretical context. The scientific method in its classic form is now being rapidly eroded.


The Purpose of Soil And Health Library:

The wisest student learns from the originators of a body of knowledge because those who later follow in the founders' footsteps are not trailblazers of equivalent depth. This is especially true of the writings from many post WWII academics and professors who mainly write because they must publish . . . or perish. Even when the earliest works in a field contain errors because their authors lacked some bit of data or had a fact wrong, their books still contain enormous wisdom. If nothing else, study of older books lets us discover that the conditions that prevail today aren't the way things always were—whilst on some levels, some things hardly ever change at all.


Source and/or suggested readings:

1.Comparative Gut Microflora, Metabolic Challenges, and Potential Opportunities

J. Apajalahti Alimetrics Ltd, FIN-00380 Helsinki, Finland Download from Dropbox

The Processes of Death and Decomposition

By Farlander:

MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource

Small Intestine:


Some of my Best Friends are Germs


Woman Drinks Only Soda for 16 Years, Suffers Heart Problems



*Other acids are also produced in a series of 10 steps as glucose converts to lactic acid. But for practical purposes we can assume only one is produced as far as a ‘primary waste product’ is concerned.

** If you are thinking, “wait a minute!... ATP is used to power muscles,” then you need to realize ATP is not a fuel substrate per se’, but the final and actual stuff that goes K’POW to make a muscle contract. ‘P’ in ATP stands for phosphorous, which is the explosive stuff on a match head you strike it to light it. We totally ignore ATP for now; it’s ridiculous to teach the role of ATP in muscle metabolism (as most textbooks do) before learning the more meaningful connection between the food you eat and how muscles use food as fuel substrate.

***Even thought ATP powers explosive movements without oxygen, ATP is not a fuel substrate. Glucose and fat are fuel substrates used to produce ATP. Fermenting glucose produces ATP much faster and in greater amounts than aerobic metabolism of glucose.

****At the turn of the 19th Century and throughout the first half of the 20th century, glycolysis - the reaction that causes high intensity, anaerobic muscle contractions - was called fermentation.

**** Not all bacteria are ‘obligated’ to feed only on sugar/carbs.


Parting thoughts:

Three examples of invalid knowledge in an incohesive thought structure followed by one example of valid knowledge in an incohesive thought structure:

1. Carbs are the primary fuel for cells (invalid)

2. Saturated fatty acids increase cholesterol (invalid)

3. LDL cholesterol increases risk of CHD: (invalid, see slide below)

Coronary heart disease risk does not increase significantly as LDL levels increase.

Obviously it is more important to maintain a high HDL level.

Direct source:



This is a valid statement, but the recommendation to take fish oil ‘fits into’ a thought structure based on wrong thinking. Fish oil is anti-inflammatory because it’s immunosuppressive, duh. Suppressing inflammation is synonymous with suppressing the immune response (as a cell swells when it is an excited state). Thus, the symptoms of inflammation get ‘treated’ – giving the appearance a problem is solved when it is not by quelling a symptom. This is analogous to the fact drugs treat symptoms but not the cause of the underlying condition. I use this as an example to point out the hordes of writers who regurgitate their source reading and spread wrong information. This is normal; I am not criticizing it. I too once thought certain fish and flax seed oils were ‘healthy’… before I understood peroxidation, how to season a cast iron pan, free radicals, and the immune system. What should be criticized is remaining obstinate or in disbelief after examining indisputable evidence that may be contrary to a point of view.



Graph 1 from Lesson 25:



Graph 2 from Lesson 25: